Adrafinil is a wakefulness-promoting agent used to relieve narcolepsy and excessive daytime sleepiness with nootropic (cognitive-enhancing) properties. Adrafinil is a prodrug for modafinil and exhibits essentially identical pharmacodynamic effects in vivo. Adrafinil and modafinil are increasingly being used by healthy individuals to attain peak performance in intellectually demanding environments. Adrafinil and modafinil have been demonstrated to improve performance in specific cognitive domains in healthy individuals. Unlike traditional psychostimulants (e.g., Adderall or Ritalin), adrafinil and modafinil have negligible abuse potential and are associated with a relatively low incidence of adverse effects.